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|"Coming to Texas, 1528-1836"
Approximately 54% of all enslaved Africans brought to the New
World between 1519 and 1700 disembarked in Spanish America, and
New Spain (Mexico) received its share through the ports of Veracruz
where Africans were first brought and taken for work in the country's
gold and silver mines, as servants, field workers and other labors. So
numerous were Africans in New Spain that by 1570 the 20,569
Africans there were three times the Spanish population.
The Africans spread out through New Spain, including heading
north and across the Rio Grande inter-marrying with indigenous
people, running away from slavery (marronage) and starting their
own communities. Some became the first black Texans.
This package examines how Africans first came to this part of the
|Texas Black History Preservation Project
Documenting the Complete African American Experience in Texas -- "Know your history, know yourself"
|Want to submit an entry? See our submissions page for how you can contribute an entry, essay, photo or other pertinent information.
The Houston Riot/Camp Logan Mutiny
The darkest social blemish in Houston's history occurred on the steamy
night of Aug. 23, 1917. The Houston Riot, also called the Camp Logan
Mutiny, is known as the only race riot in U.S. history where more
whites (15) than blacks (4) died. The incident led to the largest court
martial in U.S. military history.
Here, the TBHPP examines that night as well as the events leading to it
and the aftermath that included 19 members of the 24th Infantry (a unit
of the famed "Buffalo Soldiers") being led to the gallows and buried in
practically unmarked graves at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio. Our
- "Camp Logan Riot of 1917": An essay by Roxanne Evans and
- Angela Holder, history professor at Houston Community College,
Central Campus, is a great niece of one of the 24th Infantry
soldiers hung for alleged participation in the riot. Prof. Holder
writes a personal reflection on the riots.
- Expanded Timeline: A history of African Americans in the U.S.
- The Crisis Report -- Right's activist Martha Gruening reported on
the Houston violence for the November, 1917 edition of The Crisis
magazine, the NAACP's influential quarterly publication started
by W.E.B. DuBois.
- Video: "Buffalo Soldiers history."
Drawing by Kathleen Howell
"The Emancipation Proclamation --
Freedom Realized and Delayed"
The 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation was marked in 2013. President Abraham Lincoln signed the
proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863. The order officially freed all slaves within the states or parts of states, basically the
Confederate states, including Texas, that were in rebellion against the Union. However, the proclamation did not
apply to the one million slaves in Union territory who remained in bondage and word of the edict would not
officially reach Texas for another two and half years -- June 19, 1865. View the TBHPP special package on the
Proclamation and Juneteenth, including an essay, video, and images.
The TBHPP is presenting this wonderful exhibit on the history of African-American
physicians in Texas courtesy of the Texas Medical Association. Some were born
slaves, such as Franklin R. Robey, MD, of Houston, some were the children of slaves.
Maps, vintage images, and a timeline trace key events starting in 1837 and continuing
until 2009 when TMA elected its first African-American president, William H. Fleming
III, MD, a Houston neurologist. Click here to view the exhibit.
This Week in Texas Black History -- June 28-July 4
|Africans have had a presence in Texas for almost 500 years, maybe longer. The territory was the northernmost area of New Spain (Mexico) in 1528 when Esteban (Estevanico), a Moroccan Moor
servant, waded ashore with a group of Spanish conquistadors near what is now Galveston Island and established himself as the first known African in what would become Texas. Since, African
Americans have contributed significantly in all facets of the building of the Lone Star State -- its infrastructure, image, and culture. For that, the Texas Black History Preservation Project is charting
every aspect of the black experience in Texas as an online encyclopedia.
Subscribe to our
newsletter, it's free!
|TBHPP, The Blog!
Prairie View A&M history professor Ron Goodwin's bi-weekly blog is exclusive to TBHPP, addressing black history and contemporary
African American issues. Follow, comment, and join in the discourse. Read it here.
#MyUntold -- Wells Fargo Bank storytelling campaign for African Americans
Wells Fargo Bank is giving everyday African Americans an opportunity to tell their stories as a way to present new
and varied perspectives on what it means to be African American. In the company's "#MyUntold" story- telling
movement, members of the community are invited to submit their stories on social media platforms in video,
pictures, or words by using the phrase #MyUntold. To share your untold story, simply enter the phrase
#MyUntold on Facebook, Twitter, etc. To view videos from the campaign, visit the Wells Fargo YouTube page.
For suggestions on creating and sharing your story, see the Wells Fargo storytelling tip sheet here.
30 – Lt. Henry O. Flipper, first black graduate of West Point, was court martialed and dismissed from the Army on this day in
1882 for "conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman." Flipper was an officer in the Tenth Cavalry serving at Fort Davis
(Texas) when he was accused of embezzlement as commissary officer. Flipper maintained his innocence until his death (May 3,
1940) and waged a lifelong battle for reinstatement in the Army. In December 1976, when a bust of him was unveiled at West
Point, the Department of the Army granted Flipper an honorable discharge, dated June 30, 1882. An annual West Point award
in honor of Flipper is presented to the graduate who best exemplifies "the highest qualities of leadership, self-discipline, and
perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties while a cadet."
1 – University of Houston and Olympic sprint and long jump star Carl Lewis was born on this date in 1961 in Birmingham,
Alabama. Lewis graduated from Willingboro (N.J.) High School in 1979 and entered UH as the top-ranked high school track
athlete in the country. He kept his top national ranking in the long jump and the 100-meter dash at the 1981 National Collegiate
Athletic Association (NCAA) indoor championships and was the first athlete to win two events at an NCAA championship. As
an Olympian, Lewis became the first African-American athlete since Jesse Owens in 1936 to win four gold medals in Olympic
competition. Lewis won nine gold medals combined in the 100 and 200 meter sprints, the 4x100 meter relay, and the long jump,
in four consecutive Olympics – 1984 Los Angeles, 1988 Seoul, 1992 Barcelona, and 1996 Atlanta. He won gold eight times in
World Championships competitions. In December 2001, Lewis was elected to the National Track and Field Hall of Fame, was
voted "Sportsman of the Century" by the International Olympic Committee, and "Olympian of the Century" by Sports
1 – The Acres Homes Transit Company became the first African-American-owned bus franchise in the South on this day in 1959 when it received state
certification. The predominantly black Acres Homes residents lived outside Houston’s city limits and nine miles northwest of downtown and had petitioned
city hall for a permit to operate the franchise. The Yale Street Bus Line had ceased commuter service to the area the previous year. Four AHTC buses made
43 round trips a day between downtown Houston and Acres Homes, which was annexed to Houston in 1967.
3 – Ruth J. Simmons was born on this day in 1945 in Grapeland and 56 years to the day was sworn in as the 18th president of
Brown University in 2001, becoming the first black president of an Ivy League school and the first female president at Brown
(founded in 1764). Simmons was the youngest of 12 children born to a sharecropper father and a mother who worked as a
maid. In 1995, Simmons became the first African-American woman to head a major college or university when she was selected
as president of Smith College, which she led until 2001. Simmons graduated from Phillis Wheatley High School in Houston.
4 – On this date in 1867, the Texas Republican Party was formed at a convention in Houston with African-American delegates
outnumbering whites by a total of about 150 to 20. Blacks, comprising about 90 percent of the party throughout
Reconstruction, would set the foundation for the party. Forty-four black Republicans would serve in the state legislature. The
second State GOP Chairman, Norris Wright Cuney, an African-American from Galveston led the Party from 1883 to 1897 and is
said by historians to have held “the most important political position given to a black man of the South in the nineteenth
4 – On this date in 2003, R&B singer and composer Barry White, a Galveston native, died at age 58 of renal failure in Los
Angeles. A five-time Grammy Award winner, White’s gravelly, seductive, bass voice earned him 106 gold and 41 platinum
albums, 20 gold and 10 platinum singles, with worldwide sales in excess of $100 million. White had suffered with high blood
pressure for many years and then diabetes.
4 – In what was billed as “The Fight of the Century,” Galveston’s Jack Johnson soundly defeated Jim Jeffries, “The Great White
Hope,” on this day in 1910 before a mostly white crowd of 22,000 fans in Reno, Nevada to remain as world heavyweight
champion. Jeffries came out of a five-year retirement from his undefeated career to fight the racially reviled Johnson. Jeffries said, "I
am going into this fight for the sole purpose of proving that a white man is better than a Negro." Promoters incited the crowd to
chant "kill the nigger." However, the bout was scheduled for 45 rounds, but was stopped in the 15th after Johnson twice knocked
Jeffries down. The outcome produced race riots in dozens of cities with some of the incidents the result of whites interrupting
celebrations of jubilant blacks. Police also interrupted several attempted lynchings.